The Bachelor of Science, Mathematics Education (Middle Grades or Secondary) is a competency-based program that prepares students to be licensed as mathematics teachers in middle grades. All work in this degree program is online with the exception of the Demonstration Teaching and in-classroom field experience components. This program consists of work in General Education, Teacher Education Foundations and Diversity, Mathematics Content, and Instructional Planning and Presentation. This program includes clinical experiences that prepare teacher candidates for the classroom. Candidates develop and refine their teaching skills through a series of sequential experiences beginning with; video-based observations of classroom instruction. Observations prepare candidates for an authentic, collaborative preclinical teaching experiences in K-12 settings. Clinical experiences culminate with supervised demonstration teaching in a real classroom.

### Foundations of Teaching

**Foundational Perspectives of Education**

This course provides an introduction to the historical, legal, and philosophical foundations of education. Current
educational trends, reform movements, major federal and state laws, legal and ethical responsibilities, and an overview of
standards-based curriculum are the focus of the course. The course of study presents a discussion of changes and
challenges in contemporary education. It covers the diversity found in American schools, introduces emerging educational
technology trends, and provides an overview of contemporary topics in education.

**Psychology for Educators**

This course prepares candidates to meet the expectations of society and prepares future educators to support classroom
practice with research-validated concepts. The course helps future educators to create a framework for refining teaching
skills that are focused on the learner, through engaged inquiry of integrating theory, critical issues in psychology, classroom
applications with diverse populations, assessment, educational technology, and reflective teaching.

**Fundamentals of Diversity, Inclusion, and Exceptional Learners**

Students will learn the history of inclusion and develop practical strategies for modifying instruction, in accordance with
legal expectations, to meet the needs of a diverse population of learners. This population includes learners with
disabilities, gifted and talented learners, culturally diverse learners, and English language learners.

**Classroom Management, Engagement, and Motivation**

Students will learn the foundations for effective classroom management as well as strategies for creating a safe, positive
learning environment for all learners. Students will be introduced to systems that promote student self-awareness, selfmanagement,
self-efficacy, and self-esteem. In this course, students will engage practical application via 10 hours of video
classroom observations. Students will reflect on how teachers use rules/procedures to maximize student learning and on
what makes a highly effective classroom environment. As part of a culminating experience in this course, students will,
through the video observation reflections, describe their current teaching philosophy related to classroom environment
and management.

**Educational Assessment**

Educational Assessment assists students in making appropriate data-driven instructional decisions by exploring key
concepts relevant to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of classroom assessments. Topics include ethical
assessment practices, designing assessments, aligning assessments, and utilizing technology for assessment.

### General Education

**Finite Mathematics** (For the middle grades program)

Finite Mathematics covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply discrete mathematics and properties of number
systems to model and solve real-life problems. Topics include sets and operations; prime and composite numbers; GCD
and LCM; order of operations; ordering numbers; mathematical systems including modular arithmetic, arithmetic and
geometric sequences, ratio and proportion, subsets of real numbers, logic and truth tables, graphs, trees and networks,
and permutation and combination. There are no prerequisites for this course.

**Introduction to Humanities**

This introductory humanities course allows students to practice essential writing, communication, and critical thinking skills necessary to engage in civic and professional interactions as mature, informed adults. Whether through studying literature, visual and performing arts, or philosophy, all humanities courses stress the need to form reasoned, analytical, and articulate responses to cultural and creative works. Studying a wide variety of creative works allows students to more effectively enter the global community with a broad and enlightened perspective.

**College Algebra**

This course provides further application and analysis of algebraic concepts and functions through mathematical modeling
of real-world situations. Topics include: real numbers, algebraic expressions, equations and inequalities, graphs and
functions, polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and systems of linear equations.

**Survey of United States History**

This course presents a broad and thematic survey of U.S. history from European colonization to the mid-twentieth century.
Students will explore how historical events and major themes in American history have affected a diverse population.

**Human Growth and Development Across the Lifespan**

This course introduces students to human development across the lifespan. This will include an introductory survey of
cognitive, psychological, and physical growth. Students will gain an understanding in regards to the emergence of
personality, identity, gender and sexuality, social relationships, emotion, language, and moral development through life.
This will include milestones such as education, achievement, work, dying, and death.

**English Composition I**

English Composition I introduces learners to the types of writing and thinking that are valued in college and beyond.
Students will practice writing in several genres with emphasis placed on writing and revising academic arguments.
Instruction and exercises in grammar, mechanics, research documentation, and style are paired with each module so that
writers can practice these skills as necessary. Comp I is a foundational course designed to help students prepare for success at the college level. There are no prerequisites for English Composition I.

**English Composition II**

English Composition II introduces undergraduate students to research writing. It is a foundational course designed to help
students prepare for advanced writing within the discipline and to complete the capstone. Specifically, this course will help
students develop or improve research, reference citation, document organization, and writing skills. English Composition I
or equivalent is a prerequisite for this course.

**Introduction to Communication**

This introductory communication course allows students to become familiar with the fundamental communication theories
and practices necessary to engage in healthy professional and personal relationships. Students will survey human
communication on multiple levels and critically apply the theoretical grounding of the course to interpersonal, intercultural,
small group, and public presentational contexts. The course also encourages students to consider the influence of
language, perception, culture, and media on their daily communicative interactions. In addition to theory, students will
engage in the application of effective communication skills through systematically preparing and delivering an oral
presentation. By practicing these fundamental skills in human communication, students become more competent
communicators as they develop more flexible, useful, and discriminatory communicative practices in a variety of contexts.

**American Politics and the US Constitution** (For the middle grades program)

American Politics and the US Constitution examines the evolution of representative government in the United States and
the changing interpretations of the civil rights and civil liberties protected by the Constitution. This course will give
students an understanding of the powers of the branches of the federal government, the continual tensions inherent in a
federal system, the shifting relationship between state and federal governments, and interactions between elected officials
and the ever-changing electorate. This course will focus on such topics as the role of a free press in a democracy, the
impact of changing demographics on American politics, and the debates over and expansion of civil rights. Upon
completion of the course, students should be able to explain the basic functions of the federal government, describe the
forces that shape American policy and politics, and be better prepared to participate in America’s civic institutions. This
course has no prerequisite.

### General Science Content

**Introduction to Biology**

This course is a foundational introduction to the biological sciences. The overarching theories of life from biological
research are explored as well as the fundamental concepts and principles of the study of living organisms and their
interaction with the environment. Key concepts include how living organisms use and produce energy; how life grows,
develops, and reproduces; how life responds to the environment to maintain internal stability; and how life evolves and
adapts to the environment.

**Integrated Physical Sciences**

This course provides students with an overview of the basic principles and unifying ideas of the physical sciences: physics,
chemistry, and Earth sciences. Course materials focus on scientific reasoning and practical and everyday applications of
physical science concepts to help students integrate conceptual knowledge with practical skills.

**Natural Science Lab**

This course gives you an introduction to using the scientific method and engaging in scientific research to reach
conclusions about the natural world. You will design and carry out an experiment to investigate a hypothesis by gathering
quantitative data.

### Middle School Mathematics Content (for the middle grades option)

**Trigonometry and Precalculus**

Trigonometry and Precalculus covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply trigonometry, complex numbers, systems
of equations, vectors and matrices, sequence and series, and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life
problems. Topics include degrees; radians and arcs; reference angles and right triangle trigonometry; applying, graphing
and transforming trigonometric functions and their inverses; solving trigonometric equations; using and proving
trigonometric identities; geometric, rectangular, and polar approaches to complex numbers; DeMoivre's Theorem; systems
of linear equations and matrix-vector equations; systems of nonlinear equations; systems of inequalities; and arithmetic and
geometric sequences and series. College Algebra is a prerequisite for this course.

**College Geometry**

College Geometry covers the knowledge and skills necessary to use dynamic technology to explore geometry, to use
axiomatic reasoning to prove statements about geometry, and to apply geometric models to solve real-life problems.
Topics include axiomatic systems, analytic proofs, coordinate geometry, plane and solid Euclidean geometry, non-
Euclidean geometries, constructions, transformations, deductive reasoning, and dynamic technology. College Algebra as
well as Trigonometry and Precalculus are prerequisites.

**Probability and Statistics I**

Probability and Statistics I covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic probability, descriptive statistics, and
statistical reasoning, and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life problems. It provides an introduction
to the science of collecting, processing, analyzing, and interpreting data, including representations, constructions and
interpretation of graphical displays (e.g., box plots, histograms, cumulative frequency plots, scatter plots). Topics include
creating and interpreting numerical summaries and visual displays of data; regression lines and correlation; evaluating
sampling methods and their effect on possible conclusions; designing observational studies, controlled experiments, and
surveys; and determining probabilities using simulations, diagrams, and probability rules. Candidates should have
completed a course in College Algebra before engaging in this course.

**Calculus I**

Calculus I is the study of rates of change in relation to the slope of a curve and covers the knowledge and skills necessary
to use differential calculus of one variable and appropriate technology to solve basic problems. Topics include graphing
functions and finding their domains and ranges; limits, continuity, differentiability, visual, analytical, and conceptual
approaches to the definition of the derivative; the power, chain, and sum rules applied to polynomial and exponential
functions, position and velocity; and L'Hopital's Rule. Candidates should have completed a course in Pre-Calculus before
engaging in this course.

**Middle School Mathematics: Content Knowledge**

Mathematics: Middle School Content Knowledge is designed to help candidates refine and integrate the mathematics
content knowledge and skills necessary to become successful middle school mathematics teachers. A high level of
mathematical reasoning skills and the ability to solve problems are necessary to complete this course. Prerequisites for this
course are College Geometry, Probability and Statistics I, and Pre-Calculus.

### High School Mathematics Content

**Trigonometry and Precalculus**

Trigonometry and Precalculus covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply trigonometry, complex numbers, systems
of equations, vectors and matrices, sequence and series, and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life
problems. Topics include degrees; radians and arcs; reference angles and right triangle trigonometry; applying, graphing
and transforming trigonometric functions and their inverses; solving trigonometric equations; using and proving
trigonometric identities; geometric, rectangular, and polar approaches to complex numbers; DeMoivre's Theorem; systems
of linear equations and matrix-vector equations; systems of nonlinear equations; systems of inequalities; and arithmetic and
geometric sequences and series. College Algebra is a prerequisite for this course.

**Probability and Statistics I**

Probability and Statistics I covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic probability, descriptive statistics, and
statistical reasoning, and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life problems. It provides an introduction
to the science of collecting, processing, analyzing, and interpreting data, including representations, constructions and
interpretation of graphical displays (e.g., box plots, histograms, cumulative frequency plots, scatter plots). Topics include
creating and interpreting numerical summaries and visual displays of data; regression lines and correlation; evaluating
sampling methods and their effect on possible conclusions; designing observational studies, controlled experiments, and
surveys; and determining probabilities using simulations, diagrams, and probability rules. Candidates should have
completed a course in College Algebra before engaging in this course.

**College Geometry**

College Geometry covers the knowledge and skills necessary to use dynamic technology to explore geometry, to use
axiomatic reasoning to prove statements about geometry, and to apply geometric models to solve real-life problems.
Topics include axiomatic systems, analytic proofs, coordinate geometry, plane and solid Euclidean geometry, non-
Euclidean geometries, constructions, transformations, deductive reasoning, and dynamic technology. College Algebra as
well as Trigonometry and Precalculus are prerequisites.

**Calculus I**

Calculus I is the study of rates of change in relation to the slope of a curve and covers the knowledge and skills necessary
to apply differential calculus of one variable and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life problems.
Topics include functions, limits, continuity, differentiability, visual, analytical, and conceptual approaches to the definition
of the derivative, the power, chain, sum, product, and quotient rules applied to polynomial, trigonometric, exponential,
and logarithmic functions, implicit differentiation, position, velocity, and acceleration, optimization, related rates, curve
sketching, and L'Hopital's Rule. Pre-Calculus is a pre-requisite for this course.

**Calculus II**

Calculus II is the study of the accumulation of change in relation to the area under a curve. It covers the knowledge and
skills necessary to apply integral calculus of one variable and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life
problems. Topics include antiderivatives; indefinite integrals; the substitution rule; Riemann sums; the Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus; definite integrals; acceleration, velocity, position, and initial values; integration by parts; integration
by trigonometric substitution; integration by partial fractions; numerical integration; improper integration; area between
curves; volumes and surface areas of revolution; arc length; work; center of mass; separable differential equations; direction
fields; growth and decay problems; and sequences. Calculus I is a prerequisite for this course.

**Probability and Statistics II**

Probability and Statistics II covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply random variables, sampling distributions,
estimation, and hypothesis testing, and to use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life problems. It provides
tools for the science of analyzing and interpreting data and includes statistical variability and its sources and the role of
randomness in statistical inference. Topics include discrete and continuous random variables, expected values, the Central
Limit Theorem, the identification of unusual samples, population parameters, point estimates, confidence intervals,
influences on accuracy and precision, hypothesis testing and statistical tests (z mean, z proportion, one sample t, paired t,
independent t, ANOVA, chi-squared, and significance of correlation). Calculus II and Probability and Stats I are
prerequisites to this course.

**Calculus III**

Calculus III is the study of calculus conducted in three-or-higher-dimensional space. It covers the knowledge and skills
necessary to apply calculus of multiple variables while using the appropriate technology to model and solve real-life
problems. Topics include: infinite series and convergence tests (integral, comparison, ratio, root, and alternating), power
series, taylor polynomials, vectors, lines and planes in three dimensions, dot and cross products, multivariable functions,
limits, and continuity, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, gradients, tangent planes, normal lines, and extreme
values. Calculus II is a prerequisite for this course.

**Mathematics: Content Knowledge**

Mathematics: Content Knowledge is designed to help candidates refine and integrate the mathematics content knowledge
and skills necessary to become successful secondary mathematics teachers. A high level of mathematical reasoning skills
and the ability to solve problems are necessary to complete this course. Prerequisites for this course are College
Geometry, Probability and Statistics I, and Pre-Calculus.

**Mathematical Modeling and Applications**

Mathematical Modeling and Applications applies mathematics, such as differential equations, discrete structures, and
statistics to formulate models and solve real-world problems. This course emphasizes improving students’ critical thinking
to help them understand the process and application of mathematical modeling. Probability and Statistics II and Calculus II
are prerequisites.

**Linear Algebra**

Linear Algebra is the study of the algebra of curve-free functions extended into three-or-higher-dimensional space. It
covers the knowledge and skills necessary to apply vectors, matrices, matrix theorems, and linear transformations and to
use appropriate technology to model and solve real-life problems. It also covers properties of and proofs about vector
spaces. Topics include linear equations and their matrix-vector representation Ax=b, row reduction, linear transformations
and their matrix representations (shear, dilation, rotation, reflection), matrix operations, matrix inverses and invertible
matrix characterizations, computing determinants, relating determinants to area and volume, and axiomatic and intuitive
definitions of vector spaces and subspaces and how to prove theorems about them. College Geometry and Calculus II are
prerequisites for this course.

**Abstract Algebra**

Abstract Algebra is the axiomatic and rigorous study of the underlying structure of algebra and arithmetic. It covers the
knowledge and skills necessary to understand, apply, and prove theorems about numbers, groups, rings, and fields. Topics
include the well-ordering principle, equivalence classes, the division algorithm, Euclid's algorithm, prime factorization,
greatest common divisor, least common multiple, congruence, the Chinese remainder theorem, modular arithmetic, rings,
integral domains, fields, groups, roots of unity, and homomorphisms. Linear Algebra is a prerequisite for this course.

**Advanced Calculus**

Advanced Calculus examines rigorous reconsideration and proofs involving calculus. Topics include real-number systems,
sequences, limits, continuity, differentiation, and integration. This course emphasizes students’ ability to apply critical
thinking to concepts to analyze the connections between definitions and properties. Calculus III and Linear Algebra are
prerequisites.

### Educational Psychology (for the middle grades option)

**Psychology for Educators**

This course prepares candidates to meet the expectations of society and prepares future educators to support classroom
practice with research-validated concepts. The course helps future educators to create a framework for refining teaching
skills that are focused on the learner, through engaged inquiry of integrating theory, critical issues in psychology, classroom
applications with diverse populations, assessment, educational technology, and reflective teaching.

### Teacher Education Diversity (For the middle grades program)

**Cultural Studies and Diversity**

Cultural Studies and Diversity focuses on the development of cultural awareness. Students will analyze the role of culture in
today’s world, develop culturally-responsive practices, and understand the barriers to and the benefits of diversity.

### Mathematics Education

**Mathematics Learning and Teaching**

Mathematics Learning and Teaching will help you develop the knowledge and skills necessary to become a prospective
and practicing educator. You will be able to use a variety of instructional strategies to effectively facilitate the learning of
mathematics. This course focuses on selecting appropriate resources, using multiple strategies, and instructional planning,
with methods based on research and problem solving. A deep understanding of the knowledge, skills, and disposition of
mathematics pedagogy is necessary to become an effective secondary mathematics educator. There are no prerequisites
for this course.

**Algebra for Secondary Mathematics Teaching**

Algebra for Secondary Mathematics Teaching explores important conceptual underpinnings, common misconceptions and
students’ ways of thinking, appropriate use of technology, and instructional practices to support and assess the learning of
algebra. Secondary teachers should have an understanding of the following: algebra as an extension of number, operation,
and quantity; various ideas of equivalence as it pertains to algebraic structures; patterns of change as covariation between
quantities; connections between representations (tables, graphs, equations, geometric models, context); and the historical
development of content and perspectives from diverse cultures. In particular, the focus should be on deeper
understanding of rational numbers, ratios and proportions, meaning and use of variables, functions (e.g., exponential,
logarithmic, polynomials, rational, quadratic), and inverses. Calculus I is a prerequisite for this course.

**Geometry for Secondary Mathematics Teaching** (for the secondary option)

Geometry for Secondary Mathematics Teaching explores important conceptual underpinnings, common misconceptions
and students’ ways of thinking, appropriate use of technology, and instructional practices to support and assess the
learning of geometry. Secondary teachers in this course will develop a deep understanding of constructions and
transformations, congruence and similarity, analytic geometry, solid geometry, conics, trigonometry, and the historical
development of content. Calculus I and College Geometry are prerequisites for this course.Calculus I and College
Geometry are prerequisites for this course.

**Statistics and Probability for Secondary Mathematics Teaching** (for the secondary option)

Statistics and Probability for Secondary Mathematics Teaching explores important conceptual underpinnings, common
misconceptions and students’ ways of thinking, appropriate use of technology, and instructional practices to support and
assess the learning of statistics and probability. Secondary teachers should have a deep understanding of summarizing and
representing data, study design and sampling, probability, testing claims and drawing conclusions, and the historical
development of content and perspectives from diverse cultures. Calculus I and Probability and Statistics I and II are
prerequisites for this course.

**Mathematics History and Technology**

Mathematics History and Technology introduces a variety of technological tools for doing mathematics, and you will
develop a broad understanding of the historical development of mathematics. You will come to understand that
mathematics is a very human subject that comes from the macro-level sweep of cultural and societal change, as well as the
micro-level actions of individuals with personal, professional, and philosophical motivations. Most importantly, you will
learn to evaluate and apply technological tools and historical information to create an enriching student-centered
mathematical learning environment. There are no prerequisites for this course.

### Pedagogy

**Introduction to Instructional Planning and Presentation**

Students will develop a basic understanding of effective instructional principles and how to differentiate instruction in order
to elicit powerful teaching in the classroom.

**Secondary Reading Instruction and Interventions**

Secondary Reading Instruction and Intervention explores the comprehensive, student-centered Response to Intervention
(RTI) assessment and intervention model used to identify and address the needs of learners in middle school and high
school who struggle with reading comprehension and/or information retention. Course content provides educators with
effective strategies designed to scaffold instruction and help learners develop increased skill in the following areas:
reading, vocabulary, text structures and genres, and logical reasoning related to the academic disciplines. This course has
no prerequisites.

**Secondary Disciplinary Literacy**

Secondary Disciplinary Literacy examines teaching strategies designed to help learners in middle and high school improve
upon the literacy skills required to read, write, and think critically while engaging content in different academic disciplines.
Themes include exploring how language structures, text features, vocabulary, and context influence reading
comprehension across the curriculum. Course content highlights strategies and tools designed to help teachers assess the
reading comprehension and writing proficiency of learners and provides strategies to support students' reading and writing
success in all curriculum areas. This course has no prerequisites.

### Education (for the middle grades option)

**Teaching in the Middle School**

Teaching in the Middle School examines the guiding principles and best teaching practices for educating middle school
students. The course explores the history of the middle school, the philosophy, theory, and rationale behind middle school
organization; and the differences between elementary, middle, and secondary schools. The course also examines the
unique needs of middle school students and teaching methods used to meet the needs of these learners. This course has
no prerequisites.

### Instructional Planning and Presentation

**Instructional Planning and Presentation in Mathematics**

Students will continue to build instructional planning skills with a focus on selecting appropriate materials for diverse learners, selecting age- and ability-appropriate strategies for the content areas, promoting critical thinking, and establishing both short- and long-term goals.

### Preclinical Experiences

**Preclinical Experiences in Mathematics**

Preclinical Experiences in Mathematics provides students the opportunity to observe and participate in a wide range of inclassroom
teaching experiences in order to develop the skills and confidence necessary to be an effective teacher.
Students will document and reflect upon at least 75 hours of authentic in-classroom experiences, and an early evaluation of
teaching will occur to provide feedback and suggestions for continued professional development. Prior to entering the
classroom for the observations, students will be required to meet several requirements including a cleared background
check, passing scores on the state or WGU required basic skills exam and a completed resume. This course is aligned to
the InTASC model core teaching standards.

### Demonstration Teaching

**Supervised Demonstration Teaching in Mathematics**

The Supervised Demonstration Teaching in Mathematics courses involve a series of classroom performance observations by the host teacher and clinical supervisor that develop comprehensive performance data about the teacher candidate’s skills.

**Teacher Performance Assessment in Mathematics Education**

The Teacher Performance Assessment is a culmination of the wide variety of skills learned during your time in the Teachers
College at WGU. In order to be a competent and independent classroom teacher, you will showcase a collection of your
content, planning, instructional, and reflective skills in this professional assessment.

**Professional Portfolio**

You will create an online teaching portfolio that includes professional artifacts (e.g., resume and Philosophy of Teaching
Statement) that demonstrate the skills you have acquired throughout your Demonstration Teaching experience.

**Cohort Seminar**

Cohort Seminar provides mentoring and supports teacher candidates during their demonstration teaching period by
providing weekly collaboration and instruction related to the demonstration teaching experience. It facilitates their
demonstration of competence in becoming reflective practitioners, adhering to ethical standards, practicing inclusion in a
diverse classroom, exploring community resources, building collegial and collaborative relationships with teachers, and
considering leadership and supervisory skills.